ICU Learning

Sami Safadi, M.D.

Welcome to ICU Learning. I am an assistant professor of medicine at the Department of Medicine at the University of Minnesota. I have expertise in the fields of internal medicine, nephrology, critical care medicine, and critical care echocardiography, which I have obtained through rigorous clinical training and board certification.

In both my clinical practice and research, I am particularly interested in the field of critical care nephrology and the utilization of point-of-care ultrasound. My passion lies in leveraging the power of technology to educate and equip trainees with the knowledge and skills necessary to provide exceptional care to critically ill patients.

I created this website with the aim of providing high-quality learning modules. These modules are designed to aid learners in comprehending crucial physiological processes that are essential to managing and treating critically ill patients.

Please use a modern browser such as Google Chrome, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, or Microsoft Edge. The modules should work on mobile devices as well, however, some of them don't show very nicely on smaller screens.

Please note that the modules in this website serve purely as illustrative tools, complementing your learning experience. While they not substitute expert medication judgment or medical care, we encourage you to explore these valuable resources to enhance your knowledge.

To access the content of website including the modules, we kindly request you to sign up. By signing up, you gain complimentary access to the website content, and you agree to anonymously share your usage data. The data will be used in research focused on medication education. We also may ask you to take periodic surveys, and we sincerely value your participation in them. Please refer to the Terms and Conditions and Privacy Policy for details.

Mechanical Ventilation

Positive-pressure mechanical ventilation is a life-saving intervention commonly performed in the intensive care units for patients with respiratory failure. Proficiency in setting up, and monitoring the ventilator is an essential skill in modern intensive care practice.

The modules below simulate interactions between a patient and a ventilator. Different modes of mechanical ventilation are presented. Clinical scenarios can be simulated by changing the properties of the lungs, and the parameters of the ventilator.

Our application provides a polished and immersive simulation of the intricate dynamics between patients and ventilators, including interactive waveforms. Delve into a range of mechanical ventilation modes and enhance your expertise by experimenting with diverse settings in authentic clinical scenarios

An enchanced version of this simulator that provides additional modules, and functionality is available. It can be accessed through

Simulator Modules

Mobile App

A mobile app featuring a simplified version of the simulator is available for Android and iOS devices. The links are provided below.

Get it on Apple App Store Get it on Google Play

Video Tutorials

I created a series of videos to teach the basics of mechanical ventilation using the simulator. You can access the videos on youtube by clicking this link.

Resucitation Ultrasound

Resuscitation ultrasound is an app built to help clinicians using point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS). It features hemodynamic calculators and high-quality educational content (cardiac, vascular, visceral ultrasound) in one place.

Understand what cool hemodynamic measurements can be taken and learn how to obtain them. Practice ultrasound and take measurements while using the app to optimize images and measurements. The educational content will allow successful and accurate qualitative and quantitative assessments.

Use the calculators to get the cardiac output, stroke volume, systemic vascular resistance, inferior vena cava respiratory variation, and other metrics. The educational content can be accessed from the calculator so that the learning continues.

The content is accessible online through The app is also available free of charge to use by the medical community. Android and iOS app store links are provided below.

Get it on Apple App Store Get it on Google Play

CRRT Resources

Managing Dysnatremias in Patients Receiving Renal Replacement

Dysnatremias are challenging problems in patients undergoing renal replacement therapy. The ability to manipulate sodium concentration in the dialysate or replacement solutions is limited. The link below presents formulas developed by Drs. Tinawi and Bastani. They help determine the rate of hypotonic or hypertonic solutions needed to mitigate rapid correction of dysnatremias. These formulas can be used readily by the clinician at bedside. The content is accessible through this link.

Filtration Fraction in Renal Replacement

Understanding the calculation of filtration fraction, and different factors contributing to it is an important skill for clinicians caring for ill patients who are receiving renal replacement therapy. This interactive page serves as an educational tool as well as a calculator. It is accessible through this link.


I would like to thank my mentors at the University of Maryland, the University of Pittsburgh, and the National Institute of Health for their support, and feedback. I appreciate your feedback. Please fill out this survey. If you want to report a bug, or request a feature, please email me at